Social Psychology Notebook Assignment Questions -- Semester One 2016-2017

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #1 (Assigned 9/13/16 )

Read pages 7-13 (Why Study Psychology?) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 9/15/16.

  1. Define the following: physiological, cognitive, psychology, hypothesis, theory, basic science, applied science, and scientific method
  2. Name and describe each of the four goals of psychology.
  3. Why do psychologists use the scientific method?
  4. How might a psychologist doing basic science and a psychologist practicing applied science differ in their approach to the issue of “Internet addiction”?
  5. You have developed a hypothesis that gray cars and tan cars are more likely to be sideswiped than other colors of cars.  How would you test this hypothesis?

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #2 (Assigned 9/15/16 )

 Read pages 14-22 (A Brief History of Psychology) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 9/19/16.

  1. Define the following: structuralist, introspection, functionalist, psychoanalyst, behaviorist, humanist, cognitivist, psychobiologist
  2. If phrenology had been proven to be accurate, how might it have been used to predict human behavior?
  3. Why did the Greeks think the heart was more important than the mind?
  4. How can social psychologists use other psychological approaches to help resolve cultural or ethnic conflicts?
  5. Focus for one minute on exactly what you are doing.  Write a complete description of your thought processes.

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #3 (Assigned 9/26/16 )

 Read pages 35-41 (What Is Research?) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 9/28/16.

  1. Define the following: sample, naturalistic observation, case study, survey, logitudinal study, cross-sectional study, correlation, hypothesis, variable, experimental group, control group
  2. What pre-research decisions do psychologists make?
  3. What are two ways to avaid a nonrepresentative sample?
  4. Why do psychologists use naturalistic observations?
  5. What kind of study uses diaries, tests, and interviews to intensively study a person or group?
  6. What types of data are most easily gathered through surveys?
  7. What is the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional studies?
  8. What is the difference between a positive and negative correlation?
  9. How does a psychologist use an independent variable in an experiment?
  10. What types of ethical principles govern psychological research?

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #4 (Assigned 9/29/16 )

Read pages 42-45 (Problems and Solutions in Research) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 10/3/16.

  1. Define the following: self-fulfilling prophecy, single-blind experiment, double-blind experiment, placebo effect
  2. Describe a time when your behavior influenced the behavior of someone else.
  3. How may a participant’s expectations affect the results of an experiment?
  4. Why do you think some psychologists considered Milgram’s experiment unethical?
  5. Explain how the placebo effect works.

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #5 (Assigned 10/6/16 )

Essay Question:  Using full and complete sentences write a narrative response telling about a time when you took a test that you felt was unfair.  Explain why you felt that the test was unfair and what would have been a more fair method of testing.  DO NOT IDENTIFY A TEACHER OR INSTRUCTOR’S NAME IN YOUR RESPONSE.  You are to focus on the test itself, not on the classroom teacher.  This is due on Monday, October 10, 2016.

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #6 (Assigned 10/11/16 )

Read pages 343-347 (Characteristics of Psychological Tests) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 10/13/16.

  1. Define the following: reliability, validity, percentile system, norms
  2. In order for a test to be fair and useful it must be what?  (Hint: there are three things.)
  3. List and explain three ways in which a test’s reliability may be measured.
  4. Say you took a test that showed you are better at math than 60% of everyone else who took the test.  You took the test again a month later, and it said you are better than 61% of others who took the test.  Is this test reliable? Explain why or why not.
  5. What is one of the chief methods of measuring validity?
  6. What two things does standardization refer to?
  7. If you scored at the 60th percentile on a standardized test, what does this mean?

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #7 (Assigned 10/13/16 )

Read pages 348-357 (Intelligence Testing) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 10/18/16.

  1. Define the following: intelligence, two-factor theory, triarchic theory, emotional intelligence, intelligence quotient (IQ), heritability, cultural bias
  2. According to Charles Spearman, what two factors contribute to a person’s intelligence?
  3. L.L. Thurstone proposed that intelligence is composed of seven primary mental abilities.  What are these abilities?
  4. According to Howard Gardner, what is body-kinesthetic ability?
  5. According to Robert Sternberg’s triarchic theory, what kind of thinking is required to deal with a situation you have never before encountered?
  6. What type of intelligence includes the ability to use emotions while thinking?
  7. Why was the first IQ test developed?
  8. What did Alfred Binet use as a basis for selecting test items?
  9. What was Alfred Binet’s definition of a “slow learner”?
  10. How was IQ originally computed?
  11. In general, the way norms are established for intelligence tests, most people score near what number?
  12. What issues are at the heart of the debate about IQ testing?
  13. What did studies of identical twins separated at birth show about genes and intelligence?
  14. What might cause cultural bias on an intelligence test? 

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #8 (Assigned 10/25/16)

Read pages 359-362 (Measuring Achievement, Abilities, and Interests) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 10/27/16.

  1. Define the following: aptitude test, achievement test, interest test
  2. What do aptitude tests try to measure?
  3. If you took the GATB, what would the results tell you?
  4. What is the SAT designed to predict?
  5. How are achievement and aptitude tests usually distinguished from each other?
  6. What is an adaptive test?  What is its purpose?
  7. What is the purpose of an interest test?
  8. How are the questions on interest tests fundamentally different from those on intelligence tests?
  9. How does an interest test predict that you will enjoy a particular occupation?

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #9 (Assigned 11/1/16)

Read pages 363-368 (Personality Testing) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 11/2/16.

  1. Define the following: personality test, objective test, projective test
  2. What are personality tests used for?
  3. Why are objective personality tests called “forced-choice” tests?
  4. What was the MMPI designed to do?
  5. How did the test makers select items for the MMPI?
  6. What was the CPI developed to do?
  7. How does the Meyers-Briggs test characterize personality?
  8. How do the questions on projective personality tests differ from those on objective tests?
  9. What does the Rorschach test use as its projective device?
  10. What is the theory behind the Rorschach test?
  11. On the TAT, what are test takers asked to do?

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #10 (Assigned 11/7/16)

Read pages 375-377 (Purposes of Personality Theories) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 11/8/16.

  1. What is the “something” inside people that makes them think, feel, and act differently from one another?
  2. What do all personality theorists look for?
  3. What are three ways that theorists might try to explain the differences among individuals?
  4. What do personality theorists try to find out about how people conduct their lives?
  5. How do theories relate to research?
  6. What do psychoanalytic theories emphasize?
  7. What do behaviorists study?
  8. What is the focus of cognitive theorists?
  9. Name two prominent humanistic theorists.

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #11 (Assigned 11/14/16)

Read pages 378-386 (Psychoanalytic Theories) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 11/16/16.

  1. What did Sigmund Freud believe happens to our memories of past experiences, especially painful ones?
  2. How does the id show itself in infants?
  3. Which part of personality is your conscience?
  4. Which part of personality serves to temper the other two parts?
  5. Are defense mechanisms good or bad? Explain.
  6. What happens to repressed feelings?
  7. When someone refuses to wear a seatbelt because “an accident won’t happen to me,” what defense mechanism is the person using?
  8. What is a socially acceptable way to channel aggressive feelings?
  9. According to Freud, how does the ego operate in a healthy person?
  10. In what two major ways did Carl Jung disagree with Freud?
  11. What did Alfred Adler believe to be a driving force in people’s lives?
  12. According to Adler, how do children begin to overcome feelings of inferiority?
  13. According to Adler, how does overpampering a child affect that child’s personality in adulthood?
  14. What did Karen Horney believe about Freud’s idea of parent-child conflict?

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #12 (Assigned 11/22/16)

Read pages 387-390 (Learning Theories) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 11/23/16.

  1. Define the following: behaviorism, contingencies of reinforcement
  2. What belief led to behaviorism, and why?
  3. What do behaviorists believe is the cause of personality differences?
  4. How did Skinner approach the study of behavior?
  5. If someone came to Skinner, saying that he/she is depressed, what would Skinner do first and second?
  6. If the depressed person refuses to leave the house and, instead, spends the day playing video games, what treatment would Skinner suggest?
  7. According to behaviorists, what is behavior and how do you change it?
  8. How do people acquire personality, according to Albert Bandura and Richard Walters?
  9. Why are you more likely to learn new behaviors from your friends than from your parents’ friends?
  10. What is an advantage of learning theories over psychoanalytic theories?

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #13 (Assigned 11/29/16)

Read pages 391-397 (Humanistic and Cognitive Theories) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 11/30/16.

  1. Define the following: humanistic psychology, self-actualization, self, positive regard, conditions of worth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning
  2. In what ways can human psychology be viewed as a rebellion against psychoanalysis and behaviorist theories?  Explain your answers.
  3. What kinds of people did Abraham Maslow use as a base to support his theory of personality?  List three specific examples of these people as listed in the text reading.
  4. What did Maslow believe that a person first needed to become self-actualized?
  5. On what grounds have some psychologists criticized the ideas of Maslow’s theory?
  6. By what name, or term, did Carl Rogers call self-actualization?
  7. According to Rogers, what are the two sides, or parts, of every person?
  8. According to Rogers, why is it important to have unconditional positive regard?
  9. What do humanists, such as Maslow and Rogers, mean by “life is a conscious experience”?
  10. According to George Kelly, why is it important to see yourself as a master rather than a victim of your destiny?
  11. List 5 characteristics of self-actualizing individuals.

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #14 (Assigned 12/5/16)

Read pages 398-403 (Trait Theories) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 12/7/16.

  1. What do trait theorists do more than any other personality theorists?
  2. What two assumptions do trait theorists make?
  3. What is the most important question for trait theorists?
  4. What did Gordon Allport mean when he said that a trait makes a wide variety of situations “functionally equivalent”?
  5. What did Allport use in his search to identify personality traits?
  6. According to Allport, what kind of traits are food and music preferences?
  7. Why do trait theorists use factor analysis?
  8. Why would psychologists want to measure the source traits identified by Raymond Cattle?
  9. How would you describe people on the extreme “stability” end of Hans Eysenck’s stability-versus-instability dimension?
  10. Describe the two ends of Eysenck’s psychoticism dimension.
  11. What are the "robust five” personality traits?
  12. Why do critics say that trait theorists cannot explain nor predict behaviors across different situations?
  13. According to Harry Stack Sullivan, most behaviors are a combination of what two dimensions?

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #15 (Assigned 12/14/16)

 Read pages 413-419 (15.1 Sources of Stress) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 12/15/16.

  1. Define the following: stress, stressor, stress reaction, distress, eustress, conflict situation
  2. How have different psychologists defined stress?
  3. Describe and give an example of how stress can be positive and negative to a person.
  4. Name and describe the four types of conflict situations.  Give a unique example of your own for each of these situations.
  5. What is the difference between a primary and secondary appraisal?
  6. What did Jonathan Freedman conclude about crowding being an environmental stressor?
  7. What did Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe try to prove with the development of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS)?
  8. Everyday we experience series of hassles and uplifts.  What has research made connections with these items in terms of physical health?

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #16 (Assigned 12/21/16)

Read pages 420-429 (15.2 Reactions to Stress) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 1/3/17.

  1. Define the following: anxiety, anger, fear, social support
  2. Why can’t stress reactions be clearly categorized as physical, psychological, or behavioral?
  3. Why is the body’s response to stress called the “flight or fight response”?
  4.  Name and describe what occurs at each of the three stages in the general adaptation syndrome.
  5.  What happens to the body when it is exposed to continuous stress for a long period of time?
  6. What is the difference between anger and fear?
  7. What are some examples of short-term cognitive stress reactions?
  8. What are some short-term positive and negative behavioral changes that result from stress?
  9.  Are psychosomatic symptoms real or imagined?  Give an example to support your answer.
  10.  List five physical illnesses that are commonly liked to stress.
  11. Why are people with Type A personalities likely to have coronary artery disease at an early age?
  12. How does social support affect stress-related diseases?
  13. Describe the four types of social support.

Psychology—Notebook Assignment #17 (Assigned 1/4/17)

Read pages 430-435 (15.3 Coping With Stress) in your text.  Answer the questions listed below.  Be sure to write out all questions and answers completely.  This assignment is due on 1/5/17.

  1. Define the following: cognitive appraisal, denial, intellectualization, progressive relaxation, meditation, biofeedback
  2. Make a diagram like the one below.  Describe how each coping strategy listed helps to reduce stress.

Coping Strategy                                      Reduces Stress by…

A.     Hardiness

B.     Escape

C.     Timing 

D.     Problem Solving 

E.     Thinking Style

F.      Progressive Relaxation

G.     Humor

  1. Describe a stressful situation you faced.  What is a positive side to this situation?
  2. What is an active coping strategy?
  3. How do people use denial and intellectualization to cope with stress?
© George Olson 2018